Bird flu, influenza and 1918: The case for mutant Avian tuberculosis
Lawrence Broxmeyer MD, Bird flu, influenza and 1918: The case for mutant Avian tuberculosis. Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(5):1006-15. For Epub 2006 click here.
Reprint: Lawrence Broxmeyer.Bird Flu, Influenza and 1918: The case for mutant Avian tuberculosis. Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine,2007,2(2):83-93.
Influenza is Italian for ‘‘influence’’, Latin: influentia. It used to be thought that the disease was caused by a bad influence from the heavens. Influenza was called a virus long, long before it was proven to be one. In 2005, an article in the New England Journal of Medicine estimated that a recurrence of the 1918 influenza epidemic could kill between 180 million and 360 million people worldwide.
A large part of the current bird-flu hysteria is fostered by a distrust among the lay and scientific community regarding the actual state of our knowledge regarding the bird flu or H5N1 and the killer ‘‘Influenza’’ Pandemic of 1918 that it is compared to. And this distrust is not completely unfounded. Traditionally, ‘‘flu’’ does not kill. Experts, including Peter Palese of the Mount School of Medicine in Manhattan, remind us that even in 1992, millions in China already had antibodies to H5N1, meaning that they had contracted it and that their immune system had little trouble fending it off.
Dr. Andrew Noymer and Michel Garenne, UC Berkely demographers, reported in 2000 convincing statistics showing that undetected tuberculosis may have been the real killer in the 1918 flu epidemic. Aware of recent attempts to isolate the ‘‘Influenza virus’’ on human cadavers and their specimens, Noymer and Garenne summed that: ‘‘Frustratingly, these findings have not answered the question why the 1918 virus was so virulent, nor do they offer an explanation for the unusual age profile of deaths’’. Bird flu would certainly be diagnosed in the hospital today as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Roger and others favor suspecting tuberculosis in all cases of acute respiratory failure of unknown origin.
By 1918, it could be said, in so far as tuberculosis was concerned, that the world was a supersaturated sponge ready to ignite and that among its most vulnerable parts was the very Midwest where the 1918 unknown pandemic began. It is theorized that the lethal pig epidemic that began in Kansas just prior to the first human outbreaks was a disease of avian and human tuberculosis genetically combined through mycobacteriophage interchange, with the pig, susceptible to both, as its involuntary living culture medium. What are the implications of mistaking a virus such as Influenza A for what mycobacterial disease is actually causing? They would be disastrous, with useless treatment and preventative stockpiles. The obvious need for further investigation is presently imminent and pressing.
� 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Frequency Foundation research findings indicate deaths from Swine flu are likely due to a viral tuberculosis co-infection, consistent with the hypothesis in the paper above.