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SARS–CoV–2 Spike Impairs DNA Damage Repair and Inhibits V(D)J Recombination In Vitro
by Hui Jiang 1,2,* andYa-Fang Mei 2,*1Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner–Gren Institute, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden2Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology, Umeå University, SE-90185 Umeå, Sweden*Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.Academic Editor: Oliver SchildgenViruses2021, 13(10), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13102056 Received: 20 August 2021 / Revised: 8 September 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Host Cell Interactions)
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS–CoV–2) has led to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID–19) pandemic, severely affecting public health and the global economy. Adaptive immunity plays a crucial role in fighting against SARS–CoV–2 infection and directly influences the clinical outcomes of patients. Clinical studies have indicated that patients with severe COVID–19 exhibit delayed and weak adaptive immune responses; however, the mechanism by which SARS–CoV–2 impedes adaptive immunity remains unclear. Here, by using an in vitro cell line, we report that the SARS–CoV–2 spike protein significantly inhibits DNA damage repair, which is required for effective V(D)J recombination in adaptive immunity. Mechanistically, we found that the spike protein localizes in the nucleus and inhibits DNA damage repair by impeding key DNA repair protein BRCA1 and 53BP1 recruitment to the damage site. Our findings reveal a potential molecular mechanism by which the spike protein might impede adaptive immunity and underscore the potential side effects of full-length spike-based vaccines.Keywords: SARS–CoV–2; spike; DNA damage repair; V(D)J recombination; vaccine