Long COVID: major findings, mechanisms and recommendations
Hannah E. Davis, Lisa McCorkell, Julia Moore Vogel & Eric J. Topol
nature reviews microbiology https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-022-00846-2
Long COVID is an often debilitating illness that occurs in at least 10%
of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
infections. More than 200 symptoms have been identifed with impacts
on multiple organ systems. At least 65 million individuals worldwide are
estimated to have long COVID, with cases increasing daily. Biomedical
research has made substantial progress in identifying various
pathophysiological changes and risk factors and in characterizing
the illness; further, similarities with other viral-onset illnesses such as
myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and postural
orthostatic tachycardia syndrome have laid the groundwork for
research in the feld. In this Review, we explore the current literature
and highlight key fndings, the overlap with other conditions, the
variable onset of symptoms, long COVID in children and the impact of
vaccinations. Although these key fndings are critical to understanding
long COVID, current diagnostic and treatment options are insufcient,
and clinical trials must be prioritized that address leading hypotheses.
Additionally, to strengthen long COVID research, future studies must
account for biases and SARS-CoV-2 testing issues, build on viral-onset
research, be inclusive of marginalized populations and meaningfully
engage patients throughout the research process.
Many of the clients we work with in our Photoanalysis Remote Rife Frequency Clinic have long COVID.